The speakers, including the pro-independence deputy Anna Gabriel , disobeyed the ruling and tried to hold the conference anyway, but the room where it was taking place was evicted by the police five minutes after starting. In the days previous to the referendum, the Spanish civil guard shut down more than websites following a court order issued by the High Court of Justice of Catalonia , including the official one from the Catalan government and the main site of the Catalan civil organization ANC.
The Catalan Government announced it planned to hold the referendum on 1 October According to the Catalan government, the following people were entitled to vote in the referendum: The question of the referendum was asked "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a republic?
The referendum was attended by several international observers. Of these international observers, those summoned by Diplocat are not recognised by the UN as such in not recognising this Diplocat as an international observer. Due to some alleged irregularities and to the actions taken by the national police and civil guard, the international observers, invited by the Generalitat, declared that the referendum results could not be considered valid as the process failed to meet the minimum international standards for elections.
They also criticized the police violence. On 23 September, the UN Independent Expert on the Promotion of a Democratic and Equitable International Order, Alfred de Zayas , issued a media statement  where he advocates for the right of self-determination of Catalan people, reminding "[t]he Spanish Constitution itself stipulates in its articles 10 and 96 the supremacy of international law and in particular international human rights law over of domestic law" and that "self-determination is not limited to the decolonisation context". Pollsters generally started using the proposed referendum question "Do you want Catalonia to be an independent state in the form of a republic?
In its March poll, aside from asking respondents whether they would want Catalonia to become an independent state, it asked their intents in the event of a referendum on the independence of Catalonia being called and organised by the Government of Catalonia without agreement from the Spanish Government. In a July poll a similar question was proposed, with the difference that it asked about the actual 1 October referendum.
The Catalan government estimated that polling stations representing up to , potential voters— Earlier in the day, a universal census was introduced, so any Catalan elector going out to vote could do so at any one of the still functioning polling stations. Due in part to the deactivation and repeated blocking by the police of the computer programs used to implement universal census and result reporting,  some alleged irregularities were reported by Spanish media during the celebration of the referendum.
Among them, people recorded voting more than once, votes made by non-Catalan people not included in the census or an image of a child casting a vote in the ballot box. The Catalan government was not allowed to use the same ballot boxes used in other elections and referendums because they are owned by the Spanish government, so different ballot boxes were used,  those were described as translucent by some media and opaque by some others in contrast to the transparent ballot boxes used in elections.
There was no electoral board as it dissolved itself on 22 September to avoid being fined by the Constitutional Court and the counting system was blocked by the Guardia civil following orders from the Catalan High Court Justice. The Spanish Government denounced that the rules of the referendum got changed 45 minutes before the opening. They also accepted the use of non-official ballots printed at home and made optional the requirement of using envelopes.
In 71 municipalities the number of "yes" votes tallied were more than the number of registered voters for those municipalities, which could be partly explained by the "universal census" system introduced earlier in the day allowing people to vote in a different poll station than the one they were assigned. The Civil Guard delivered a report to the Spanish High Court with recordings of conversations that allegedly demonstrate that "the results of the referendum were decided in the days leading up to its holding".
In the elections of December called by Spanish Prime Minister, parties supporting independence got On 3 October , Carles Puigdemont said that his government intends to act on the result of the referendum "at the end of this week or the beginning of next" and declare independence from Spain. Puigdemont would go before the Catalan Parliament to address them on Monday 9 October , pending the agreement of other political parties. On 4 October , Mireia Boya , a lawmaker of the Popular Unity Candidacy CUP , announced that a declaration of independence would likely come after the parliamentary session on 9 October.
The King of Spain, Felipe VI , called the Catalan referendum "illegal" and appealed to the union [of Spain], calling the situation "extremely serious. According to Swiss national radio, the Foreign Ministry of Switzerland has offered to mediate between the two sides in the crisis. It also made clear that Switzerland fully respects Spanish Sovereignty and that in any case any facilitation of the process could only take place in case that both sides requested it. The Spanish police and Guardia Civil mounted operations to close the polling stations.
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The security forces met resistance from citizens who obstructed their access to the voting tables; in Sant Julia de Ramis, where Puigdemont was expected to vote,  they were joined by Corps of Firefighters of Catalonia members who formed a "human shield" separating the police from civilians to help obstruct their access to the polling station. According to the Ministry of the Interior , rubber bullets balls were only used against demonstrators in one of those incidents in the Barcelona's Eixample district.
The Spanish government endorsed the police actions ordered by the regional high court. According to El País , after the first reports of violence, the government canceled the order given to the security forces, which pulled out early from the polling centers. Various images and reports used to magnify the claims of police violence were circulated but were later found to be inaccurate or photoshopped ,      and reports argued later that such posts, as well as conspiracy theories, had been amplified through the same network of social network profiles that had earlier promoted alt-right and pro-Putin views during earlier elections in Western countries.
According to the judge, there were persons injured on that day in the city of Barcelona alone, 20 of whom were agents.
Catalonia sets date for early elections
Of those injured, most were minor, but four people were hospitalised by the emergency health service and of those, two were in serious condition, one due to impact from a rubber ball in the eye in the protests, the other for unrelated causes. There was a police charge near school Ramon Llull. When police officers tried to enter inside the polling station, voters responded with a sit-in protest to block their way in.
Few minutes later more anti-riot police was deployed in the zone and they could find the way in after breaking the polling station door. Police officers confiscated the ballot boxes, some of them with votes inside. In their way out, voters blocked the passage of the police cars standing or sitting in front of the police vehicles.
The Police didn't provide medical reports for some of them and didn't explain how they were produced. The Mossos d'Esquadra have been accused of failing to execute the direct order issued by the High Court of Justice of Catalonia and not closing the voting centers before the voting commenced, or not confiscating voting materials on the day of the poll. According to the final report by the Catalan Health Service CatSalut of the Generalitat, there were 1, people attended by the Catalan hospitals in connection with the Catalan Referendum: On 20 October , the last injured person left the hospital.
Regarding the age distribution: This figures include 12 police officers: On 19 February , in the hearing for the injuries in the village of Castellgalí, a Guardia Civil policeman testified before the judge that he only found passive resistance, thus contradicting a Spanish police statement, which claimed that violence, kicks and spitting took place at that location. As of August the spread between Spanish year government debt and German bonds was close to its narrowest in seven years; however, since the start of July the yield on the Catalan regional government's bonds had jumped by about 50 basis points,  signaling unease among investors in regards to the referendum issue.
Stratfor suggested financial market disruption is due to the political upheaval. It'll take quite a bit longer to assess where this is going and what this will mean, how the EU will react, how the Spanish government will react. So I don't think you'll see people adjusting their portfolios on Monday, but you could get the classic knee-jerk, risk-off reaction.
On 10 October in a speech in front of the Catalan parliament Puigdemont stated that he considered the referendum results to be valid and in consequence used the following wording: In response the Central government made a formal request for him to answer before the Monday 16 October if he declared independence asking specifically for yes or no answer clarifying that any answer different than a "no" would be interpreted as a "yes". Since he refused to abandon his independence push, on 21 October the Spanish government initiated the implementation of article of the Spanish constitution.
On 27 October , the Parliament of Catalonia unilaterally declared independence from Spain. The proposal presented by the pro-independence political parties Junts pel Sí and Popular Unity Candidacy was approved with 70 votes in favor 10 against and 2 blank votes. The measure is intended to be temporary; its claimed objective being to "re-establish the rule of law" and restore autonomy after new elections. On 16 January , the Spanish Constitutional Court issued a temporary restraining order regarding the work of the Catalan Government commission that investigates the violation of fundamental rights in Catalonia.
Different sources describe aspects of the events differently according to their political stance. TV3 covered the referendum and the police violence regularly while TVE mainly emphasised the Spanish government's position on its legality. Various media reported on fake images of police violence against civilians that were posted in social networks.
The Spanish newspaper El País argued that "the network of fake-news producers that Russia has employed to weaken the United States and the European Union is now operating at full speed on Catalonia",  involving a network of Russian media outlets and social network bots which, according to the argument, aimed to influence local and global discussion of events. Later investigations by Medium-DFRL said it found support for some but not all of the arguments made by Spanish outlets.
Those two being the first and the third top-sellers in the category of non-fiction in Catalan language during the Diada de Sant Jordi of On 15 June, the exhibition 55 Ballot Boxes for Freedom opened in Brussels, with artwork inspired by the ballot boxes of the Catalan referendum.
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- Using archaeomagnetism to improve the dating of three sites in Catalonia (NE Spain).
Netflix used images from the police action during the day of the referendum to promote Black Mirror series in Spain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
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Catalan self-determination referendum, ; Catalan regional election, ; and Declaration of the Initiation of the Process of Independence of Catalonia. Reactions to the Catalan independence referendum, This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Catalan declaration of independence and Spanish constitutional crisis. La Razón in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on 9 September Retrieved 21 July La Vanguardia in Spanish. El Confidencial in Spanish. El Español in Spanish. El Periódico de Catalunya in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on 7 August Retrieved 27 March El País in Spanish.
Dating a modern limekiln near Girona with a presumed age of more than years produced an inconsistent age when using the Iberian SVC, but plausible ages in the 17th or 18th centuries AD using the archaeomagnetic models. Older archaeological sites, including prehistoric sites, should be investigated to fully exploit and verify the potential of the new SHA.
Diseminado Afores, 25, , Girona, Espanya.